Temporary tables

Again, this is another blog post about nothing new at all but an attempt to put down my understanding of temporary tables down in a way that will help me when I refer back to it and hopefully be of more wider use.

When looking at things like this a test system is always essential for checking things and finding some surprising results. If you don’t have one you can soon set one up with VMWare or Virtual Box and a copy of Informix Developer Edition. For this post I am going to set up a simple test instance with four specific dbspaces:

  • A logged rootdbs with plenty of free space, called rootdbs.
  • A logged dbspace for my data and indices, called datadbs.
  • A temporary dbspace without logging, called tmp2k_unlogged.
  • A temporary dbspace with logging, called tmp2k_logged.

What’s the difference between a temporary dbspace with logging and a normal dbspace? Nothing except that one appears in the DBSPACETEMP onconfig setting.

Consider the SQL statements which explicitly create temporary tables in a session:

create temp table unlogged (col1 int) with no log;
insert into unlogged values (1);

and:

create temp table logged (col1 int);
insert into logged values (1);

For these tests we must have TEMPTAB_NOLOG set to 0 in our onconfig otherwise the second statement will silently have a with no log criterion added to it.

Let’s run these, use oncheck -pe to see which dbspace they get placed in and then use onlog -n <starting log unique identifier> to see if changes to these tables get logged or not:

DBSPACETEMP setting unlogged table logged table
dbspace used logged operations dbspace used logged operations
tmp2k_unlogged:tmp2k_logged tmp2k_unlogged no tmp2k_logged yes
tmp2k_unlogged tmp2k_unlogged no datadbs yes
tmp2k_logged tmp2k_logged no tmp2k_logged yes
NONE datadbs no datadbs yes

So already a few interesting results drop out:

  1. We can specify both logged and unlogged dbspaces using the DBSPACETEMP parameter.
  2. The engine will prefer logged dbspaces for logged tables and unlogged dbspaces for unlogged tables.
  3. If an unlogged dbspace is not available the engine can use a logged dbspace and create unlogged tables in it.
  4. If a logged dbspace is not available the engine will use an alternative dbspace because an unlogged dbspace does not logging at all. In this case it has chosen datadbs, because this is the dbspace in which I created my database.

At this point it’s worth referring to an IBM technote on this subject. This suggests some more tests but already my results are not in agreement with the first example given:

If we have created a dbspace named tmpdbs, but we could not see it was marked as ‘T’ in the result of onstat -d. We set DBSPACETEMP configuration parameter to tmpdbs. On this condition, tmpdbs will be used for logged temporary tables. That means if a temp table is created with ‘WITH NO LOG’ option, the server will not use it.

This is implying that my tmp2k_logged dbspace (it will not have the ‘T’ flag) cannot be used for unlogged temporary tables. You can see from my table that this isn’t true and I invite you to test this for yourself.

As part proof here is the onstat -d and oncheck -pe output:

$ onstat -d | grep tmp2k
7f9d7310         3        0x60001    3        1        2048     N  BA    informix tmp2k_logged
7f9d74b8         4        0x42001    4        1        2048     N TBA    informix tmp2k_unlogged


DBspace Usage Report: tmp2k_logged        Owner: informix  Created: 03/08/2015


 Chunk Pathname                             Pagesize(k)  Size(p)  Used(p)  Free(p)
     3 /informix_data/sandbox/tmp2k                   2      512       61      451

 Description                                                   Offset(p)  Size(p)
 ------------------------------------------------------------- -------- --------
 RESERVED PAGES                                                       0        2
 CHUNK FREELIST PAGE                                                  2        1
 tmp2k_logged:'informix'.TBLSpace                                     3       50
 db1:'thompsonb'.unlogged                                            53        8
 FREE                                                                61      451

 Total Used:       61
 Total Free:      451

Moving on, let’s do a slightly different test:

select * from sysmaster:systables into temp mytab_unlogged with no log;

and:

select * from sysmaster:systables into temp mytab_logged;

And the results:

DBSPACETEMP setting unlogged table logged table
dbspace used logged operations dbspace used logged operations
tmp2k_unlogged:tmp2k_logged tmp2k_unlogged no tmp2k_logged yes
tmp2k_unlogged tmp2k_unlogged no datadbs yes
tmp2k_logged tmp2k_logged no tmp2k_logged yes
NONE datadbs no datadbs yes

Again my results are in disagreement with the IBM technote which says:

If DBSPACETEMP is not specified, the temporary table is placed in either the root dbspace or the dbspace where the database was created. SELECT…INTO TEMP statements place the temporary table in the root dbspace. CREATE TEMP TABLE statements place the temporary table in the dbspace where the database was created.

In both cases in my tests the engine chose datadbs and not my root dbspace.

Let’s move on a bit. How do I know what temporary tables are in use on my system as a whole?

One way is to run something like:

onstat -g sql 0 | grep -A 3 'User-created Temp tables'

This might get you something like this:

User-created Temp tables :
  partnum  tabname            rowsize 
  400003   mysystables2       500
  400002   mysystables        500

Another way is to run oncheck -pe and have a look at what is in your temporary dbspaces. Here you may also see space used by the engine for sorting, marked with SORTTEMP, or temporary tables created implicitly by the engine for query processing. However whatever type of object it is, you will find it impossible to match anything you see to a particular session by this method; it is only possible to match to a user name which would only allow positive identification if there was only a single session per user.

There is another way to match tables to sessions which works for explicitly created temporary tables, for which I don’t want to claim any credit because I cribbed it from the IIUG Software Repository. The script is called find_tmp_tbls and it its present state is broken when used with 11.70 (and hasn’t been tested since version 9.30.FC2 according to its README): at least it does not work with 64-bit Linux, mainly because the syntax for onstat -g dmp seems to have changed slightly. I managed to fix it up, however.

It’s a little complicated to follow but the basic steps are this:

  1. You need to start with a given session and check if it has any temporary tables. (Unfortunately I don’t know a way of working backwards from the temporary table to see which session it belongs to either through onstat or the SMI interface.)
  2. Get the session’s rstcb value, either from onstat -g ses <sid> or from the first column in onstat -u.
  3. Run onstat -g dmp 0x<rstcb> rstcb | grep scb. Note that the rstcb value must be prefixed by 0x.This should return an scb value in hex.
  4. Take this value and run onstat -g dmp <scb> scb_t | grep sqscb. Your address must start with 0x again and this is true throughout all the examples. This will return two values; take the one labelled just sqscb.
  5. Feed this value into another dmp command: onstat -g dmp <sqscb> sqscb_t | grep dicttab. This will return another value.
  6. Finally take this and get the partnum(s) of the temporary tables for the session by running: onstat -g dmp <dicttab> "ddtab_t,LL(ddt_next)" | grep partnum.

Here is all that as an example:

$ onstat -g dmp 0x2aaaab608488 rstcb_t | grep scb
    scb          = 0x2aaaabf5f1c0
$ onstat -g dmp 0x2aaaabf5f1c0 scb_t | grep sqscb
    sqscb        = 0x2aaaad6c8028
    sqscb_poolp  = 0x2aaaad6c92c8
$ onstat -g dmp 0x2aaaad6c8028 sqscb_t | grep dicttab
    dicttab      = 0x2aaaad87c4f0
$ onstat -g dmp 0x2aaaad87c4f0 "ddtab_t,LL(ddt_next)" | grep partnum
    ddt_partnum  = 4194307
    ddt_partnum  = 4194306

It’s worth emphasising that this method will only work for explicitly created temporary tables. It won’t identify temporary space used by:

  • implicitly created temporary tables created by the engine to process a query.
  • temporary sort segments.

If there is a similar method for these types, I would be interested to find out about it.

Armed with the partnum you can do whatever you want with it like run this query against the sysmaster database to see what space is being used:

SELECT
  tab.owner,
  tab.tabname,
  dbsp.name dbspace,
  te_chunk chunk_no,
  te_offset offset,
  te_size size
FROM
  systabnames tab,
  systabextents ext,
  syschunks ch,
  sysdbspaces dbsp
WHERE
  tab.partnum in (4194306, 4194307) AND
  ext.te_partnum=tab.partnum AND
  ch.chknum=ext.te_chunk AND
  dbsp.dbsnum=ch.dbsnum
ORDER BY
  tab.owner,
  tab.tabname,
  te_extnum;

Giving results like:

owner tabname dbspace chunk_no offset size
thompsonb mysystables tmp2k_unlogged 6 53 8
thompsonb mysystables2 tmp2k_unlogged 6 61 8

For reference there is information about explicit and implicit temporary tables and temporary sort space in these tables in the sysmaster database:

  • sysptnhdr
  • sysptnext
  • sysptnbit
  • sysptntab
  • sysptprof
  • systabextents
  • systabinfo
  • systabnames
  • systabpagtypes

So in conclusion I hope this post brings together some useful information about explicit temporary tables. Personally I’d like to be able to get a complete picture of which sessions what statements are using temporary space, which this doesn’t give. If I find anything it will be subject of a future blog post.